Design Of Steel Structures
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Design loads for buildings include dead and live loads. Dead loads consist of the weight of all permanent constructions, including fixed equipment that is placed on the structure. In bridges, it includes the weight of decks, sidewalks, railings, utility posts and cables, and the bridge frame. Live loads are dynamic and vary in time. They include vehicles, snow, personnel, movable machinery, equipment, furniture, merchandise, wind and earthquake forces, and the like. Once a building frame has been selected on the basis of dead and live loads, a check must be made using a combination of these loads. In some regions, a check must include the seismic forces. Member sizes may have to be modified from the initial selection to meet the wind and seismic forces. Live load tables are provided by almost all building codes. In unusual cases, the design load intensity is established to the satisfaction of a building official. However, the actual distribution of the live load for maximum effect is the responsibility of the design engineer. Table 1.3 lists live load intensities for various occupancies.