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## Structure of atom

__Contents__Width and Shape of Spectral Lines

Lifetime Broadening

Collision or Pressure Broadening

Doppler Broadening

Atomic Orders of Magnitude

Other important Atomic quantities

The Central Field Approximation

The form of the Central Field

Finding the Central Field

The Central Field Approximation

The Physics of the Wave Functions

Energy

Angular Momentum

Radial wavefunctions

Parity

Multi-electron atoms

Electron Configurations

The Periodic Table

Gross Energy Level Structure of the Alkalis: Quantum Defect

Corrections to the Central Field: Spin-Orbit interaction

The Physics of Spin-Orbit Interaction

Finding the Spin-Orbit Correction to the Energy

The B-Field due to Orbital Motion

The Energy Operator

The Radial Integral

The Angular Integral: Degenerate Perturbation Theory

Degenerate Perturbation theory and the Vector Model

Evaluation of D sˆ · ˆl E using DPT and the Vector Model

Spin Orbit Interaction: Summary

Spin-Orbit Splitting: Alkali Atoms

Spectroscopic Notation

Two-electron Atoms: Residual Electrostatic Effects and LS-Coupling

Magnesium: Gross Structure

The Electrostatic Perturbation

Symmetry

Orbital effects on electrostatic interaction in LS-coupling

Spin-Orbit Effects in 2-electron Atoms

Nuclear Effects on Atomic Structure 37 6.1 Hyperfine Structure

The Magnetic Field of Electrons

Coupling of I and J

Finding the Nuclear Spin, I

Isotope Effects

Selection Rules 42 7.1 Parity

Configuration

Angular Momentum Rules

Atoms in Magnetic Fields 44 8.1 Weak field, no spin

8.2 Weak Field with Spin and Orbit

Anomalous Zeeman Pattern

Polarization of the radiation

Strong fields, spin and orbit

Intermediate fields

Magnetic field effects on hyperfine structure

Weak field

Strong field

X-Rays: transitions involving inner shell electrons 56 9.1 X-ray Spectra

X-ray series

Fine structure of X-ray spectra

X-ray absorption

Auger Effect

High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy 61 10.1 Absorption Spectroscopy

Laser Spectroscopy

Spectral resolution

“Doppler Free” spectroscopy

Crossed beam spectroscopy

Saturation Spectroscopy

Two-photon-spectroscopy

Calibration of Doppler-free Spectra

Comparison of “Doppler-free” Methods

## Structure of atom

After studying this unit you will be
able to

• know about the discovery of electron, proton and neutron and their characteristics;

• describe Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr atomic models;

• understand the important features of the quantum mechanical model of atom;

• understand nature of electromagnetic radiation and Planck’s quantum theory;

• explain the photoelectric effect and describe features of atomic spectra;

• state the de Broglie relation and Heisenberg uncertainty principle;

• define an atomic orbital in terms of quantum numbers;

• state aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity;

• write the electronic configurations of atoms.

• know about the discovery of electron, proton and neutron and their characteristics;

• describe Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr atomic models;

• understand the important features of the quantum mechanical model of atom;

• understand nature of electromagnetic radiation and Planck’s quantum theory;

• explain the photoelectric effect and describe features of atomic spectra;

• state the de Broglie relation and Heisenberg uncertainty principle;

• define an atomic orbital in terms of quantum numbers;

• state aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity;

• write the electronic configurations of atoms.

## ATOMIC STRUCTURE pdf file

At the end of this unit you will be able to:

• Calculate the electrostatic and gravitational forces between two bodies or
particles

• State the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and calculate the uncertainty
in position or velocity of a particle or body

• Define the de Broglie wavelength and calculate same for particles and
bodies

• Explain interference and diffraction in light and electrons

• Explain the terms wavefunction, Eigenfunction and Hamiltonian operator
as they appear in the Schrödinger Wave Equation

• Sketch the radial wavefunctions for the 1s, 2s and 2p orbitals

• Sketch the Radial Distribution Functions for 1s, 2s and 2p orbitals

• Define and depict radial and angular nodes on orbitals

• Define and give examples of principal, orbital angular momentum,
magnetic and spin quantum numbers
• Calculate the energy of the levels and the emission lines in the hydrogen
atom

• Explain the Orbital Approximation and apply it to the Helium atom

• State the Pauli Exclusion Principle, and rationalize it in terms of the
relative stability of different electronic configurations (e.g. Lithium).

• State Hund’s rule and explain it in terms of the relative stability of the
different electronic configurations of sub-shells (e.g. Carbon)
• Define Cartesian and Spherical Polar coordinates

• State advantages of expressing wavefunctions in Spherical Polar
coordinates

• Define radial wavefunction and angular wavefunction

• Calculate and plot the hydrogen 1s Radial wavefunction

• Define and calculate orbital angular momentum of an electron in different
orbitals

• Define and explain Space Quantization
• Define Ionization Enthalpy and explain its trend across the Li – Ne
period.

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