At the end of this unit you will be able to: 
• Calculate the electrostatic and gravitational forces between two bodies or particles 
• State the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and calculate the uncertainty in position or velocity of a particle or body 
• Define the de Broglie wavelength and calculate same for particles and bodies 
• Explain interference and diffraction in light and electrons 
• Explain the terms wavefunction, Eigenfunction and Hamiltonian operator as they appear in the Schrödinger Wave Equation 
• Sketch the radial wavefunctions for the 1s, 2s and 2p orbitals 
• Sketch the Radial Distribution Functions for 1s, 2s and 2p orbitals 
• Define and depict radial and angular nodes on orbitals 
• Define and give examples of principal, orbital angular momentum, magnetic and spin quantum numbers • Calculate the energy of the levels and the emission lines in the hydrogen atom 
• Explain the Orbital Approximation and apply it to the Helium atom
• State the Pauli Exclusion Principle, and rationalize it in terms of the relative stability of different electronic configurations (e.g. Lithium). 
• State Hund’s rule and explain it in terms of the relative stability of the different electronic configurations of sub-shells (e.g. Carbon) • Define Cartesian and Spherical Polar coordinates 
• State advantages of expressing wavefunctions in Spherical Polar coordinates 
• Define radial wavefunction and angular wavefunction 
• Calculate and plot the hydrogen 1s Radial wavefunction 
• Define and calculate orbital angular momentum of an electron in different orbitals 
• Define and explain Space Quantization • Define Ionization Enthalpy and explain its trend across the Li – Ne period. 

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