The underwater concrete technology has historically evolved largely through a trial-and-error process of constructing marine works. Many outstanding examples exist of high quality concrete placed underwater. However, failures also occurred and led to excessive cost and/or schedule overruns. These failures were largely due to improper concrete mix design or improper placement. The problems may have occurred because proper underwater concrete construction techniques and experience have not been widely disseminated. This section focuses on technical issues of underwater concrete mix design, concrete production and placement, and quality control.
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