Underwater concrete construction is a critical component of the entire project. It is technically demanding, usually on the critical path of the project. It is technically demanding, usually on the critical path of the project schedule, and involves complex construction logistics. Therefore, its significance in the project far beyond the concreting operations themselves, in essence, underwater concrete can be constructed with the same degree of reliability as above-water construction. But if it is not carried out properly, with the proper concrete mixture and placement procedure, underwater concrete construction can result in a major cost and schedule overrun. This is the area where sound design and competent construction planning can achieve a meaningful reduction in risk and cost.
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